1948 Fiat 500 Topolino. Click image to enlarge
Article and photo by Bill Vance
Once the automobile was established as a reliable means of transportation, the challenge was to make it affordable to the majority of people. Many countries developed what became known as “people’s cars,” basic automobile transportation that ordinary working citizens could buy.
America led the way with its venerable Model T Ford, and the more Henry Ford built, ultimately over 15 million, the lower he priced them. Others were England’s Austin Seven, Germany’s Volkswagen Beetle (which actually got its name from “people’s car”) and France’s Citroen 2CV.
Italy was a great motoring nation, and Fiat, one of its oldest and most respected automobile manufacturers, was not to be left out. It is fitting, therefore, that Italy’s most famous people’s car was the Fiat “Topolino,” a.k.a Little Mouse or Mickey Mouse. It was well named because its perky headlamps perched up on the fenders could be likened to mouse ears.
Fiat had been planning a truly useful small, two-passenger car for many years, and in fact had built its first prototype in 1913. Several other designs were tested, but for a variety of reasons their goal did not reach fruition until they were able to introduce the Topolino in 1936.
The Fiat 500 Topolino’s engine was not, as might be expected, a 500 cc, but displaced 570 cc. And it was far from a spartan, utilitarian machine. Although it was aimed at the masses, it was probably the world’s first truly refined minicar, really like a shrunk down large car.
Designer Dante Giacosa gave the Topolino worthy engineering credentials, including independent front suspension using transverse leaf springs, hydraulic brakes, and an inline, side-valve, four-cylinder engine.
The iron-block, aluminum-head, water cooled four developed 13 horsepower at 4,000 r.p.m. An unusual feature was the location of its radiator and cooling fan behind the engine. The little four drove the rear wheels through a four-speed, synchromesh transmission and a solid rear axle that was suspended on leaf springs.
The wheelbase was a minuscule 2,000 mm (78.7 in.), and with an overall length, width and height of just 3,220 mm, 1,280 mm, and 1,370 mm (127, 50.5, and 54 in.), respectively, the Topolino was quite tiny.
Giacosa, a former aircraft engine engineer, valued light weight, and he carried this philosophy over into the Topolino. The frame side-members, for example, were lightened by a series of large holes. The resulting reduction in strength could be tolerated because the central part of the chassis was relieved of undue stress by a strong front cross-member that not only provided engine mounting, but absorbed the steering and suspension forces.
The Fiat’s excellent technology was wrapped in an attractive, aerodynamically efficient, two-passenger coupe body that could also be had as a roll-top convertible. Its hood curved up in a pleasing arc, and the “suicide style” doors were hinged at the rear.
Mounting the Topolino’s engine well forward left much of the underhood space available as leg room, providing more than adequate accommodation for two people in spite of the car’s small dimensions. The passengers sat at the mid-point of the car for optimum riding comfort and weight distribution. Some families even managed to fit children into the luggage space behind the seats, perhaps initiating the original 2 + 2 idea.
The Topolino’s performance could be termed adequate for its era and class of car. It reached a top speed of 85 km/h (53 mph), but perhaps more important to most buyers, sipped fuel at the rate of only 5 litres per 100 km (56 mpg).
Because they were small, inexpensive and of high quality, the modest Topolino’s components adapted themselves readily to use in competition. They formed the basis for many racing cars, including those constructed by such famous Italian tuning specialists as Gordini, Moretti, Abarth, Cisitalia, Siata and Stranguellini. In these applications their performance demands were stretched well beyond anything imagined by their humble origins.
The Topolino was put into production late in 1936, and except for the Second World War automobile manufacturing interruption, continued to be built until 1948.
Because it fulfilled its purpose of providing reliable transportation at a small initial price, and economical operating costs affordable by modest families, it has a treasured place in the memories of untold thousands of Italians.
Over its production lifetime more than half a million Topolinos were built. It would be followed by other Fiat minicars, such as the rear engined 500 and 600, but the Topolino was first, and it deserves its special place in automotive history. None of the others could quite duplicate the magic of the Little Mouse.